1945, Swinemünde had 22,000 inhabitants. In addition, the town and its streets were full of refugees. 14 million people were fleeing from the front towards the West on horse-drawn carts, on board ships, by train or on foot. Ten of thousands had arrived in Swinemünde. There was a pontoon bridge over the Swina river. A fully occupied train was on board the train ferry crossing the Swina; another train was ready for departure in the harbour railway station. Schools and other public buildings were overcrowded with the elderly, the sick and the wounded. Wehrmacht supply units were camped in the "plantation". Soviet units were already at the Dievenow river near Wollin and asked the Allies for assistance.
Just after noon on 12th March 1945, the sirens wailed in Swinemünde. 671 four-engined heavy bombers (B17 flying fortresses and R 24s) of the US 8th Air Force and 412 and fighter planes attacked the town for approximately one hour. 1,609 tons of bombs were dropped from an altitude of 6000 m. The port area, the old city centre and the beach quarter were razed to the ground. 12 fully-loaded refugee transport vessels had put into Swinemünde shortly before the attack. Six of them sank, including the "Cordillera" and the "Andros". 570 people, most of them women and children, died when the "Andros" went down. The number of victims who died was estimated at up to 23,000.
On that day, Swinemünde met the same terrible fate as other larger German towns such as Hamburg, Kassel, Darmstadt, Pforzheim and Dresden. Taking the size of the town into consideration, the attack on Swinemünde can be seen as the most devastating attack mounted on a German town. "The massacre of Swinemünde" (J. Friedrich: "Der Brand") can be found in the records of the US 8th Air Force as an attack on marshalling yards.
Almost 60 years later, Dr. H. Schnatz of Koblenz (who used the records of the above-mentioned fleet as the premise for his theses), somewhat cynically established 1:3 ratio: One ton of Allied bombs killed on average 3.1 people. On that reckoning, how many people were killed by the 3218 bombs dropped on Swinemünde? This approach enabled him to minimize the number of victims (at least on paper) to a considerable degree.
Most of the victims were laid to rest on the Golm Hill, where a memorial was established several decades ago in commemoration.
This webmaster experienced the air raid on Swinemünde and thus got to know the horror of the war.
n-tv: Inferno an der Ostsee Bombardierung von Swinemünde
Die dpa-Meldung vom 8. März 2005
Inferno an der Ostsee
Bombardierung von Swinemünde
Zehntausende Flüchtlinge in der Hafenstadt Swinemünde auf Usedom wähnten sich Anfang März 1945 schon in Sicherheit. Sie waren der Roten Armee über die Ostsee oder über Land entkommen und rechneten nun mit dem baldigen Kriegsende.
Die Straßen der 20.000-Einwohnerstadt waren verstopft mit Planwagen, auf denen die Menschen das transportierten, was sie in aller Eile hatten retten können. Am 12. März warfen 671 Bomber der 8. US-Luftflotte insgesamt 1.600 Tonnen Bomben über Swinemünde (heute Swinoujscie) ab. Sie verwandelten das Chaos in ein Inferno. Die genaue Zahl der Opfer konnte nie ermittelt werden, Schätzungen gehen von 23.000 Toten aus.
"Als um 11.00 Uhr die Sirenen heulten, machten wir uns zunächst keine großen Sorgen, weil es zuvor schon so oft Fehlalarm gegeben hatte", erinnert sich die Publizistin Carola Stern, die den Angriff als 19-Jährige miterlebt hat. "Als dann eine halbe Stunde später die ersten Bomben fielen, zog mich ein Soldat zu Boden und wir robbten in eine Waschküche. Ich dachte, meine letzte Stunde hätte geschlagen." In ihrem Versteck fand die junge Frau Trost bei einer Berlinerin, die schon zahlreiche Angriffe auf die Hauptstadt mitgemacht hatte. "Sie erklärte, dass Bomben, die man pfeifen hört, woanders einschlagen."
Rund eine Stunde dauerte der Angriff. "Die Stadt war danach eine einzige Schutthalde. Auf den Straßen lagen überall tote Menschen und Pferde sowie Hausrat aus den Wagen der Flüchtlinge." Viele von ihnen starben, weil sie ihre Habseligkeiten während es Angriffs nicht alleine lassen wollten. Die grauenhaften Szenen raubten Stern fast den Verstand: "Ich lief mit einem irren Lachen durch die Stadt. Im Stadtpark lagen überall abgerissene Köpfe und Gliedmaßen, weil die Bomben mitten unter die Menschen gefallen waren, die dort Schutz gesucht hatten."
Erwin Rosenthal, damals fünf Jahre alt, befasste sich später ausgiebig mit dem Angriff. Rosenthals Familie verlor bei dem Bombardement ihren gesamten Besitz. "Als der Alarm losging, liefen wir von unserer Wohnung zwei Häuser weiter zu meiner Großmutter. Kurz darauf zerstörte eine Bombe unser Haus und das Haus meiner Großmutter wurde schwer beschädigt." Er selbst stürzte in den Keller, wie durch ein Wunder überlebten er und die ganze Familie. "Ich konnte sehen, wie um uns herum alles in Trümmer fiel oder Feuer fing. Wir sahen Schwerverletzte, die durch die Straßen humpelten und vor Schmerz schrien." Heute versuchen er und sein polnischer Co-Autor Józef Plucinski, das Trauma des Angriffes und des Verlustes der Heimat auf einer Internetseite über Swinemünde zu verarbeiten.
Die Bombenopfer fanden ihre letzte Ruhestätte auf dem Golm, einem Hügel außerhalb der Stadt, der vor dem Krieg ein beliebtes Ausflugsziel der Swinemünder war. Viele tausend Tote wurden dort bestattet, die meisten anonym in Massengräbern. "Die Kinderleichen wurden zuvor im Hafen der Größe nach sortiert und gestapelt", erinnert sich Stern. Auch sie verurteilt den Angriff: "Dafür habe ich lange gebraucht. Schließlich hat Deutschland den Krieg angefangen. Als ich als junges Mädchen in der Wochenschau die deutschen Piloten bei ihren Angriffen gesehen habe, habe ich auch kein Grauen empfunden, sondern eher Stolz. Ich dachte daher, ich hätte kein Recht, andere zu verurteilen. Aber eine Stadt voller Flüchtlingen so kurz vor Kriegsende zu zerstören, war ein schweres Unrecht."
(Axel Büssem, dpa)
|Herbert Weber, Iserlohn,
born 1931, had been a student at Hagen/Westphalia
Secondary School since Sept. 1941.Due to the rising
intensity of allied air raids on West German cities,
students and teachers of his school were evacuated to
more safer regions in Eastern Germany at the end of July
1943. The new home assigned to them was the port city of
Rügenwalde on the Baltic Sea in East Pomerania. There,
the students lived with Rügenwalde families in foster
homes, and shared the school house and all its
facilities with the locals.
When the Red Army advanced closer to Rügenwalde in early 1945 the greater part of the Hagen students left the critical zone and returned to their home town.
Herbert Weber and those who stayed behind were lucky to get out on the last ship on March 6,1945, one day before the Soviets conquered Rügenwalde. Together with hundreds of other refugees they were able to escape from the Russians across the Baltic Sea to the port city of Swinemünde.
At that time Swinemünde on the Isle of Usedom was overcrowded with refugees. They came from East Prussia und Pomerania mostly on horse drawn carriages or by ships filling the harbour and awaiting their turn to disembark their human cargo. All these people were lucky to have escaped from the Soviets. They found provisional shelter in schools, churches, gymnasiums, etc. The Swinemünde railway station was congested with trains that were to transport refugees and also wounded soldiers to the West.
Herbert Weber and his group, already four days on board and waiting to enter the harbour were finally able to disembark. They found shelter in the straw covered auditorium of the FONTANE High School on Roon Street. On Monday March 12, 1945 at about 11 a.m. Swinemünde was attacked by 671 B17 and B24 Bombers of the 8th USAirForce unleashing 1609 tons of bombs. The Bombers were escorted by 412 P51-“Mustang” fighters.
In no time the city turned into a flaming inferno and became what people called “the Dresden of the North”.The students from Hagen, who had previously been evacuated to be safe from allied bombing raids, found themselves amidst such a disaster. Miraculously the group survived and nobody in the basement of the school came to harm. The following morning busses took them to the Neubrandenburg railway station, from where they continued on their journey home, travelling only by night, because of the danger of low flying fighters during day time. The group finally reached the city of Hagen on March 16,1945.
Over a span of more than ten years H.Weber has been involved in researching and documenting the events concerning the Swinemünde raid. These efforts resulted in the editing and issuing of a brochure under the title “The Inferno of Swinemünde” in which 39 eyewitnesses give an account of how they lived through that dreadful hour on March 12, 1945.
The raid – ordered by the Soviet Military – did by no means achieve its military aim, since the victims were mostly civilians. As many as 23000 men, women and children are said to have lost their lives during that noon-hour. The dead were buried in mass graves at the “Golm”, a hill outside Swinemünde, which has thus become one of the largest war grave sites in Germany.
Providence, an encounter 61 years after World War II
In February of 2006 I flew to Florida to visit an old friend from Kindergarten days, now living in Montreal, Canada, but who spends the winter months in his condo at Delray Beach. We had been informed by local newspapers that the annual Air Show of WWII planes, i.e. bombers would be held at the nearby Boca Raton Airfield during that period. When we went to see the “Old timers” we were guided and informed by ex-pilots and crew members who were now in their eighties.
My friend and I had vivid memories of the types of planes on display, which in war times flew over Germany to attack their targets. When looking at these so-called “Flying Fortresses” and “Liberators” my thoughts went back to the Swinemünde air raid and I relived that terrible bombing experience. We met two ex-airmen, one of them Mr. A. Edward Wilen of Boca Raton, the Exhibition Manager, aged 84, who navigated a B24 on a bombing mission to Braunschweig (Brunswick) on May 8,1944 and was shot down by a German fighter. He bailed out and was held prisoner in different POW-camps until he was liberated by troops of the 3rd USArmy in Moosburg/Bavaria/Germany on April 29,1945.
The other veteran, aged 80, by the name of Sid Katz of Livingston, New Jersey, flew as a radar operator on a four engine “Liberator” completing in all 30 missions over Germany. When questioned about the targets they attacked he mentioned Magdeburg, Kassel and others, and referred to one in a somewhat amused undertone: One morning at an unearthly hour, the crews were briefed about their target. The name that came up was “Schweineminde” which sounded almost Yiddish to the young Jewish airman. I corrected him and made sure he meant “Swinemünde on the Baltic Sea”, which he confirmed, mentioning that it happened on a Monday in March 1945. My friend and I looked at each other in utter amazement and I said to Sid Katz: “You bombed me, but I survived and could escape!” He took hold of my hands and our eyes met for a long moment!
I had to travel to Florida to meet by chance a man who along with hundreds of his comrades had been instrumental in causing the most frightful 70 minutes of my then 14 years young life, but also bringing thousandfold death and destruction to Swinemünde. Sid Katz was unaware that the air raid of March 12, 1945 had cost more than 20000 lives. His comments with a certain sign of regret were: “At the time I was 19 years old and had to do my duty!”
He remembered that the air raid had been requested by the Soviet Military, and that the large bomber formation (671 four engine bombers, dropping a bomb load of 1609 tons) were escorted by 412 P51 “Mustang” fighter planes.
Despite total allied air supremacy at that time there was still fear of German fighter attacks. The escorting “Mustangs” were therefore ordered to stay with the bombers at all times. Sid, however, did not exclude that some of the fighters may have ignored the order and flew low level attacks against ground targets. Sid Katz unit was the 467th Bomb Group, 2nd Air Division, 8th US AirForce.
Sid told me, that he made several trips to Europe, however, not to Germany. I did not dare ask why. Could it have been because of Nazi-Germany’s crimes against the Jews? Our conversation came to an end when Sid was called away to guide a group of school children, who had just arrived by bus.
Herbert Weber, Iserlohn
The photo shows (from left) A. Edward Wilen, Sid Katz and Herbert Weber